By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible by means of Proverbs, activity, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha by way of Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, is usually well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the useless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content basically due to its particular and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra largely to be had, this quantity bargains a serious variation, translation, and remark at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader matters, together with its date, style, major issues, and position in moment Temple Judaism. ultimately, on the way to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s courting to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions is usually explored.
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Extra info for 4QInstruction
4QInstruction, by contrast, contains no accounts of visions and there is no angelus interpretus. The composition emphasizes not the revelation of the raz nihyeh but rather the importance of studying it. The emphasis on the study of revelation can be understood as a combination of the text’s pedagogical emphasis with influence from the apocalyptic tradition. See Goff 2005b, 57–67. 66. , Sir 23:16–21; Wis 3:10). For an overview of the apocalyptic tradition, see Collins 1998. Studies that discuss the interplay between wisdom and apocalypticism in 4QInstruction include Collins 1997f, 265–81; Elgvin 2000a, 226–47; and Bro Larsen 2002, 1–14.
The word is probably not passive, contra DJD 34, 49, since one would then expect איוּבה, not איוּבת. The term is not in construct. 25. Strugnell and Harrington 1999, 49; Rey 2009a, 141. 4Q415 2 II 39 rial in 4Q415 2 ii provides a clear rationale as to why the woman would treat herself in a hostile manner. The line is better understood as attesting some form of conflict between her and another woman. One could posit either polygamy or divorce as the underlying problem. 26 Divorce may be at issue in line 4, as mentioned above.
One should be respectful and honest towards one’s lenders and pay off the debt promptly (4Q417 2 i 20–24). The creditor may not show the same attitude towards the mebin. 4Q417 2 i 25–27, for example, indicates that the lender could have the addressee flogged. Amidst such treatment, the exhortation that one show honesty and dignity towards the creditor is notable, and reflects the importance of maintaining good relations with creditors. This also suggests that the mebin has a somewhat regular need for credit.
4QInstruction by Matthew J. Goff