Download e-book for iPad: A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson

By Bill Bryson

ISBN-10: 0552997048

ISBN-13: 9780552997041

Invoice Bryson describes himself as a reluctant tourist: yet even if he remains thoroughly in his personal learn at domestic, he can't include his interest concerning the global round him. a quick historical past of approximately every little thing is his quest to determine every thing that has occurred from the massive Bang to the increase of civilization - how we received from there, being not anything in any respect, to the following, being us. invoice Bryson's problem is to take topics that usually bore the pants off so much people, like geology, chemistry and particle physics, and notice if there isn't a way to render them understandable to those who have by no means proposal they can have an interest in technological know-how. It's no longer loads approximately what we all know, as approximately how we all know what we all know. How can we be aware of what's within the centre of the Earth, or what a black gap is, or the place the continents have been six hundred million years in the past? How did an individual ever determine these items out? On his travels via time and house, he encounters a ideal number of astonishingly eccentric, aggressive, obsessive and silly scientists, just like the painfully shy Henry Cavendish who labored out many conundrums like how a lot the Earth weighed, yet by no means afflicted to inform anyone approximately a lot of his findings. within the corporation of such awesome humans, invoice Bryson takes us with him at the final eye-opening trip, and divulges the area in a manner such a lot folks have by no means obvious it ahead of.

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2 A voltameter Selective discharge OH" (aq) = OH (aq)-Hehydroxide radicals 40H(aq) = 0 2 (g)+2H 2 0(l) molecular evolved The reaction at the anode produces 4 electrons for every molecule of oxygen, and at the cathode the 4 electrons must produce 2 molecules of hydrogen. Hence the volume of hydrogen evolved is double the volume of oxygen. (ii) Dilute sodium hydroxide using platinum electrodes Cathode reaction Cations H 3 + 0(aq) Na + (aq) Selective discharge H3+0(aq) + le" = H(g)+ H20(1) atomic hydrogen H(g) + H(g) = H2(g) molecular hydrogen evolved Anode reaction Anione OH" (aq) OH-(aq) = OH(aq) + lehydroxide radicals 40H(aq) = 0 2 (g)+2H 2 0(l) molecular oxygen evolved (iii) Dilute sodium chloride using platinum electrodes Cathode reaction Cations H3+ O(aq) Na + (aq) Selective discharge H3+ O (aq) + le" = H (g) + H 2 0 (1) atomic hydrogen H(g) + H(g) = H2(g) molecular hydrogen evolved Anode reaction Anions OH (aq) Cl~ (aq) Selective discharge 48 Newnes Engineering and Physical Science Pocket Book OH-(aq) = OH(aq) + lehydroxide radicals 4PH(aq) = 0 2 (g) + 2H 2 0(l) molecular oxygen evolved (iv) Dilute copper sulphate using carbon electrodes Cathode reaction Cations H3+0(aq) Cu +2 (aq) Selective discharge Cu + 2 (aq)+2e- = Cu(s^ metallic copper Anode reaction Anione O H ( a q ) S04"2(aq) Selective discharge OH(aq) = OH(aq)+lehydroxide radical 40H-(aq) = 0 2 (g) + 2H 2 0(l) molecular oxygen evolved The electrolysis of molten salts and concentrated solutions 8 (i) Molten sodium chloride using carbon electrodes Cathode reaction Cation Na + (1) Na + (l) + le- = Na(l) molten sodium metal Anion Anode reaction Cl-(l) Cr(l) = Cl(g)+leatomic chlorine Electrolysis Cl(g) + Cl(g) = Cl2(g) molecular chlorine evolved (ii) Concentrated hydrochloric acid using carbon electrodes Cathode reaction Cation H 3 + 0(aq) H 3 + 0(aq) + l e = H ( g ) + H 2 0(l) atomic hydrogen H(g) + H(g) = H2(g) molecular hydrogen evolved Anode reaction Anione O H ( a q ) C l ( a q ) Selective discharge overcome by concentration effects Cl-(aq) = Cl(g)-fleatomic chlorine Cl(g)+Cl(g) = Cl,(g) molecular chlorine evolved Electrolysis using a dissolving anode (electroplating) Copper (II) sulphate solution using copper electrodes 9 Cathode reaction Cations Cu 2+ (aq) H 3 + 0(aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e- = Cu(s) copper metal deposited on the cathode.

24 I 41 7 Electrolysis 1 Electrolysis is the name given to the chemical changes which occur when an electric current is passed through an electrolyte. An electrolyte is defined as a substance which in its molten state or in solution with water can conduct a current of electricity. The resistivity of electrolytes vary depending upon their composition. Strong electrolytes which ionise completely in aqueous solution have a value of approximately 10~' ohmsmetre and poor electrolytes 103 ohms-metre.

These are joined together by a s a l t b r i d g e , and a voltmeter is connected across the complete circuit to measure the voltage produced. 5 T h e electrode potential of a half-cell is dependent on t h r e e f a c t o r s . These a r e : (a) the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the solution of the ions; (b) the a b s o l u t e t e m p e r a t u r e of the solution; and (c) the o x i d a t i o n n u m b e r of the metal ions in solution. Because of this dependence, a set of s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s have been selected for use in the measurement of electrode potentials.

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