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To measure intensive signals such as pressure, temperature, or chemical composition it is often (but not always, as shown below) necessary to bring the sensing element into direct contact with the medium to be measured, that is, the matter carrying the energy or signal. If the sensor needs to operate in a harsh environment or at very high temperatures, reliability requirements usually demand that the electrical or electronic part of the sensor be separated from the mechanical, fluidic, or high-temperature part.

Particulate measurements for diesel engines may also result in new types of exhaust-gas sensors, either controlling the function of the particulate filter or being part of a motor component that controls the regeneration of a particulate filter. Whether use of all of these sensors will become widespread in the near future depends on progress in developing new motor management and injection concepts, which is always struggling to meet the next step of exhaust-gas legislation without making use of expensive additional sensors.

5). Solving Eq. 8 yields the value of the input signal of interest: U ˆ g…Vout ; Y1 ; Y2 ; Y3 …Y1 †; :::† …3:9† The functions f and g are called sensor models. These models can be complicated, especially when multistep signal conversion and cross interactions between different components and types of energy have to be taken into account. Therefore we need to deal with the output signals of different transducing elements within a signal path in more detail (next section). 4 Sensor Output Signals To obtain conclusive data about the environment, technical systems rely on information provided by sensors via electrical output signals.

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A textbook of inorganic chemistry vol.X The metal-amines

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