By E. Martuscelli, P. Musto, G. Ragosta
This quantity comprises ten contributions which jointly supply an account of many of the techniques used to enhance the sturdiness of polymer matrices. The correlations one of the molecular constitution of the parts, the morphology, and the mechanical homes of combination structures are emphasised, as are the equipment used to regulate the constitution of those fabrics in the course of processing. a few issues, that are vital within the layout and formula of tricky polymer blends, comprise the position of the interface in multicomponent platforms, the chemical reactivity of the combination elements, the mode and country of dispersion of the second one part, the crystallinity and crystallization stipulations, and the glass transition temperature. additionally lined is the paintings which all started within the early Seventies with the chemical amendment of ethylene-propylene copolymers for use as tougheners of Polyamide-6. Double-spaced. B&w illustrations.
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Extra info for Advanced Routes for Polymer Toughening
These results can be interpreted considering that, as it will be shown later, the PEI phase separates during the early stages of the curing process. It is likely fllat this PEI phase incorporates a small amount of unrcacted TGDDM which can act as plasticizer [50,51]. 49 I 200 150 Ik,,, ! I - 100 "r'
I' " 10 Blend Composition I' 15 20 PC) Figure 18. Elastic flexural modulus, E, as a function of blend composition. Fracture measurements were also carried out under impact conditions in order to evaluate the toughness of these materials under rapid loading. The Kc and G e values are reported as a function of blend composition in Figs. 19 and 20, respectively. In 38 this case the K e values were obtained as previously, using eq. 7, while the G e values were estimated by energy measurements according to the following equation: U (9) G = BW@ where U is the fracture energy corrected for the kinetic energy contribution, B and W are the thickness and the width of the specimen respectively and ~ is a calibration factor which depends on the length of the notch and the size of the sample.
In particular, we note that, prior to the crack arrest line AB, all the samples exhibit a smooth and relatively featureless surface which can be associated with fast crack propagation,. Beyond the AB line, the pure epoxy (Fig. 21A) as well as the 41 blends B5 and BS, for which no stick-slip behavior was observed (micrographs not shown), display only the presence of fine markings extending from a restricted area. Figure 21. " A) pure epoxy resin; B) BIO blend; C) B15 blend; D) B20 blend. At high magnification (Fig.
Advanced Routes for Polymer Toughening by E. Martuscelli, P. Musto, G. Ragosta